Ivkovic S, Yoon BS, Popoff SN, Safadi FF, Libuda DE, Stephenson RC, Daluiski A, Lyons KM: Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development. Development. 2003, 130: 2779-2791. 10.1242/dev.00505.
Crawford LA, Guney MA, Oh YA, Deyoung RA, Valenzuela DM, Murphy AJ, Yancopoulos GD, Lyons KM, Brigstock DR, Economides A, Gannon M: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) inactivation leads to defects in islet cell lineage allocation and beta-cell proliferation during embryogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2009, 23: 324-336.
Doherty HE, Kim HS, Hiller S, Sulik KK, Maeda N: A mouse strain where basal connective tissue growth factor gene expression can be switched from low to high. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e12909-10.1371/journal.pone.0012909.
Grotendorst GR, Duncan MR: Individual domains of connective tissue growth factor regulate fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Faseb J. 2005, 19: 729-738. 10.1096/fj.04-3217com.
Yang DH, Kim HS, Wilson EM, Rosenfeld RG, Oh Y: Identification of glycosylated 38-kDa connective tissue growth factor (IGFBP-related protein 2) and proteolytic fragments in human biological fluids, and up-regulation of IGFBP-rP2 expression by TGF-beta in Hs578T human breast cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998, 83: 2593-2596. 10.1210/jc.83.7.2593.
de Winter P, Leoni P, Abraham D: Connective tissue growth factor: structure-function relationships of a mosaic, multifunctional protein. Growth Factors. 2008, 26: 80-91. 10.1080/08977190802025602.
Dziadzio M, Usinger W, Leask A, Abraham D, Black CM, Denton C, Stratton R: N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a marker of the fibrotic phenotype in scleroderma. Qjm. 2005, 98: 485-492. 10.1093/qjmed/hci078.
Roestenberg P, van Nieuwenhoven FA, Wieten L, Boer P, Diekman T, Tiller AM, Wiersinga WM, Oliver N, Usinger W, Weitz S, et al: Connective tissue growth factor is increased in plasma of type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2004, 27: 1164-1170. 10.2337/diacare.27.5.1164.
Grotendorst GR, Rahmanie H, Duncan MR: Combinatorial signaling pathways determine fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Faseb J. 2004, 18: 469-479. 10.1096/fj.03-0699com.
Kubota S, Hattori T, Shimo T, Nakanishi T, Takigawa M: Novel intracellular effects of human connective tissue growth factor expressed in Cos-7 cells. FEBS Lett. 2000, 474: 58-62. 10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01573-8.
Yang F, Tuxhorn JA, Ressler SJ, McAlhany SJ, Dang TD, Rowley DR: Stromal expression of connective tissue growth factor promotes angiogenesis and prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2005, 65: 8887-8895. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1702.
Shakunaga T, Ozaki T, Ohara N, Asaumi K, Doi T, Nishida K, Kawai A, Nakanishi T, Takigawa M, Inoue H: Expression of connective tissue growth factor in cartilaginous tumors. Cancer. 2000, 89: 1466-1473. 10.1002/1097-0142(20001001)89:7<1466::AID-CNCR8>3.0.CO;2-G.
Chen PP, Li WJ, Wang Y, Zhao S, Li DY, Feng LY, Shi XL, Koeffler HP, Tong XJ, Xie D: Expression of Cyr61, CTGF, and WISP-1 correlates with clinical features of lung cancer. PLoS One. 2007, 2: e534-10.1371/journal.pone.0000534.
Kikuchi R, Tsuda H, Kanai Y, Kasamatsu T, Sengoku K, Hirohashi S, Inazawa J, Imoto I: Promoter hypermethylation contributes to frequent inactivation of a putative conditional tumor suppressor gene connective tissue growth factor in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2007, 67: 7095-7105. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4567.
Singh A, Settleman J: EMT, cancer stem cells and drug resistance: an emerging axis of evil in the war on cancer. Oncogene. 2010, 29: 4741-4751. 10.1038/onc.2010.215.
Burns WC, Thomas MC: The molecular mediators of type 2 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and their role in renal pathophysiology. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010, 12: e17.
Wendt MK, Smith JA, Schiemann WP: Transforming growth factor-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition facilitates epidermal growth factor-dependent breast cancer progression. Oncogene. 2010, 29: 6485-6498. 10.1038/onc.2010.377.
Wang B, Herman-Edelstein M, Koh P, Burns W, Jandeleit-Dahm K, Watson A, Saleem M, Goodall GJ, Twigg SM, Cooper ME, Kantharidis P: E-cadherin expression is regulated by miR-192/215 by a mechanism that is independent of the profibrotic effects of transforming growth factor-beta. Diabetes. 2010, 59: 1794-1802. 10.2337/db09-1736.
Secker GA, Shortt AJ, Sampson E, Schwarz QP, Schultz GS, Daniels JT: TGFbeta stimulated re-epithelialisation is regulated by CTGF and Ras/MEK/ERK signalling. Exp Cell Res. 2008, 314: 131-142. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.09.001.
Babic AM, Chen CC, Lau LF: Fisp12/mouse connective tissue growth factor mediates endothelial cell adhesion and migration through integrin alphavbeta3, promotes endothelial cell survival, and induces angiogenesis in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1999, 19: 2958-2966.
Lau LF, Lam SC: The CCN family of angiogenic regulators: the integrin connection. Exp Cell Res. 1999, 248: 44-57. 10.1006/excr.1999.4456.
Dornhofer N, Spong S, Bennewith K, Salim A, Klaus S, Kambham N, Wong C, Kaper F, Sutphin P, Nacamuli R, et al: Connective tissue growth factor-specific monoclonal antibody therapy inhibits pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2006, 66: 5816-5827. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0081.
Bennewith KL, Huang X, Ham CM, Graves EE, Erler JT, Kambham N, Feazell J, Yang GP, Koong A, Giaccia AJ: The role of tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in pancreatic tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2009, 69: 775-784. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0987.
Luft FC: CCN2, the connective tissue growth factor. J Mol Med. 2008, 86: 1-3. 10.1007/s00109-007-0287-x.
Chu CY, Chang CC, Prakash E, Kuo ML: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cancer progression. J Biomed Sci. 2008, 15: 675-685. 10.1007/s11373-008-9264-9.
Wahab N, Cox D, Witherden A, Mason RM: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) promotes activated mesangial cell survival via up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). Biochem J. 2007, 406: 131-138. 10.1042/BJ20061817.
Chien W, Yin D, Gui D, Mori A, Frank JM, Said J, Kusuanco D, Marchevsky A, McKenna R, Koeffler HP: Suppression of cell proliferation and signaling transduction by connective tissue growth factor in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2006, 4: 591-598. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0029.
Wang MY, Chen PS, Prakash E, Hsu HC, Huang HY, Lin MT, Chang KJ, Kuo ML: Connective tissue growth factor confers drug resistance in breast cancer through concomitant up-regulation of Bcl-xL and cIAP1. Cancer Res. 2009, 69: 3482-3491. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2524.
Lin BR, Chang CC, Che TF, Chen ST, Chen RJ, Yang CY, Jeng YM, Liang JT, Lee PH, Chang KJ, et al: Connective tissue growth factor inhibits metastasis and acts as an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2005, 128: 9-23. 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.10.007.
Deng YZ, Chen PP, Wang Y, Yin D, Koeffler HP, Li B, Tong XJ, Xie D: Connective tissue growth factor is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and promotes tumorigenicity through beta-catenin-T-cell factor/Lef signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282: 36571-36581. 10.1074/jbc.M704141200.
Kloppel G, Perren A, Heitz PU: The gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine cell system and its tumors: the WHO classification. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004, 1014: 13-27. 10.1196/annals.1294.002.
Cunningham JL, Tsolakis AV, Jacobson A, Janson ET: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in endocrine tumors is associated with high stromal expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010, 163: 691-697. 10.1530/EJE-10-0420.
Moertel CG, Sauer WG, Dockerty MB, Baggenstoss AH: Life history of the carcinoid tumor of the small intestine. Cancer. 1961, 14: 901-912. 10.1002/1097-0142(196109/10)14:5<901::AID-CNCR2820140502>3.0.CO;2-Q.
Hallen A: Fibrosis in the carcinoid syndrome. Lancet. 1964, 1: 746-747.
Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Kidd M: Carcinoid tumors and fibrosis: an association with no explanation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004, 99: 2466-2478. 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.40507.x.
Sakai D, Murakami M, Kawazoe K, Tsutsumi Y: Ileal carcinoid tumor complicating carcinoid heart disease and secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pathol Int. 2000, 50: 404-411. 10.1046/j.1440-1827.2000.01053.x.
Gupta A, Saibil F, Kassim O, McKee J: Retroperitoneal fibrosis caused by carcinoid tumour. Q J Med. 1985, 56: 367-375.
Day RM, Agyeman AS, Segel MJ, Chevere RD, Angelosanto JM, Suzuki YJ, Fanburg BL: Serotonin induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell migration. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006, 71: 386-397. 10.1016/j.bcp.2005.10.035.
Gustafsson BI, Tommeras K, Nordrum I, Loennechen JP, Brunsvik A, Solligard E, Fossmark R, Bakke I, Syversen U, Waldum H: Long-term serotonin administration induces heart valve disease in rats. Circulation. 2005, 111: 1517-1522. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000159356.42064.48.
Moller JE, Connolly HM, Rubin J, Seward JB, Modesto K, Pellikka PA: Factors associated with progression of carcinoid heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2003, 348: 1005-1015. 10.1056/NEJMoa021451.
Rajamannan NM, Caplice N, Anthikad F, Sebo TJ, Orszulak TA, Edwards WD, Tajik J, Schwartz RS: Cell proliferation in carcinoid valve disease: a mechanism for serotonin effects. J Heart Valve Dis. 2001, 10: 827-831.
Rameshwar P, Oh HS, Yook C, Gascon P, Chang VT: Substance p-fibronectin-cytokine interactions in myeloproliferative disorders with bone marrow fibrosis. Acta Haematol. 2003, 109: 1-10. 10.1159/000067268.
Nilsson J, von Euler AM, Dalsgaard CJ: Stimulation of connective tissue cell growth by substance P and substance K. Nature. 1985, 315: 61-63. 10.1038/315061a0.
Katayama I, Nishioka K: Substance P augments fibrogenic cytokine-induced fibroblast proliferation: possible involvement of neuropeptide in tissue fibrosis. J Dermatol Sci. 1997, 15: 201-206. 10.1016/S0923-1811(97)00608-7.
Wulbrand U, Wied M, Zofel P, Goke B, Arnold R, Fehmann H: Growth factor receptor expression in human gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998, 28: 1038-1049. 10.1046/j.1365-2362.1998.00397.x.
Chaudhry A, Papanicolaou V, Oberg K, Heldin CH, Funa K: Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. Cancer Res. 1992, 52: 1006-1012.
Nilsson O, Wangberg B, McRae A, Dahlstrom A, Ahlman H: Growth factors and carcinoid tumours. Acta Oncol. 1993, 32: 115-124. 10.3109/02841869309083899.
Nilsson O, Wangberg B, Theodorsson E, Skottner A, Ahlman H: Presence of IGF-I in human midgut carcinoid tumours--an autocrine regulator of carcinoid tumour growth?. Int J Cancer. 1992, 51: 195-203. 10.1002/ijc.2910510206.
Wulbrand U, Remmert G, Zofel P, Wied M, Arnold R, Fehmann HC: mRNA expression patterns of insulin-like growth factor system components in human neuroendocrine tumours. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000, 30: 729-739. 10.1046/j.1365-2362.2000.00700.x.
Zhang PJ, Furth EE, Cai X, Goldblum JR, Pasha TL, Min KW: The role of beta-catenin, TGF beta 3, NGF2, FGF2, IGFR2, and BMP4 in the pathogenesis of mesenteric sclerosis and angiopathy in midgut carcinoids. Hum Pathol. 2004, 35: 670-674. 10.1016/j.humpath.2003.12.010.
Duncan MR, Frazier KS, Abramson S, Williams S, Klapper H, Huang X, Grotendorst GR: Connective tissue growth factor mediates transforming growth factor beta-induced collagen synthesis: down-regulation by cAMP. Faseb J. 1999, 13: 1774-1786.
Kothapalli D, Frazier KS, Welply A, Segarini PR, Grotendorst GR: Transforming growth factor beta induces anchorage-independent growth of NRK fibroblasts via a connective tissue growth factor-dependent signaling pathway. Cell Growth Differ. 1997, 8: 61-68.
Hahn A, Heusinger-Ribeiro J, Lanz T, Zenkel S, Goppelt-Struebe M: Induction of connective tissue growth factor by activation of heptahelical receptors. Modulation by Rho proteins and the actin cytoskeleton. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 37429-37435. 10.1074/jbc.M000976200.
Ruddell RG, Oakley F, Hussain Z, Yeung I, Bryan-Lluka LJ, Ramm GA, Mann DA: A role for serotonin (5-HT) in hepatic stellate cell function and liver fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2006, 169: 861-876. 10.2353/ajpath.2006.050767.
Svejda B, Kidd M, Giovinazzo F, Eltawil K, Gustafsson BI, Pfragner R, Modlin IM: The 5-HT(2B) receptor plays a key regulatory role in both neuroendocrine tumor cell proliferation and the modulation of the fibroblast component of the neoplastic microenvironment. Cancer. 2010, 116: 2902-2912. 10.1002/cncr.25049.
Kidd M, Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Camp RL, Mane SM, Usinger W, Murren JR: CTGF, intestinal stellate cells and carcinoid fibrogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007, 13: 5208-5216.
Welin S, Stridsberg M, Cunningham J, Granberg D, Skogseid B, Oberg K, Eriksson B, Janson ET: Elevated plasma chromogranin A is the first indication of recurrence in radically operated midgut carcinoid tumors. Neuroendocrinology. 2009, 89: 302-307. 10.1159/000179900.
Moertel CG: Karnofsky memorial lecture. An odyssey in the land of small tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1987, 5: 1502-1522.
Wangberg B, Westberg G, Tylen U, Tisell L, Jansson S, Nilsson O, Johansson V, Schersten T, Ahlman H: Survival of patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumors after aggressive tumor reduction. World J Surg. 1996, 20: 892-899; discussion 899. 10.1007/s002689900136.
Kaltsas G, Cunningham J, Falkmer S, Grimelius L, Tsolakis A: Expression of connective tissue growth factor and insulin growth factor 1 in normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cells and their clinicopathological significance. Endocrine-Related Cancer.
Aikawa T, Gunn J, Spong SM, Klaus SJ, Korc M: Connective tissue growth factor-specific antibody attenuates tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006, 5: 1108-1116. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0516.
Cheng WF, Chang MC, Sun WZ, Lee CN, Lin HW, Su YN, Hsieh CY, Chen CA: Connective tissue growth factor linked to the E7 tumor antigen generates potent antitumor immune responses mediated by an antiapoptotic mechanism. Gene Ther. 2008, 15: 1007-1016. 10.1038/gt.2008.25.
Chen CA, Ho CM, Chang MC, Sun WZ, Chen YL, Chiang YC, Syu MH, Hsieh CY, Cheng WF: Metronomic chemotherapy enhances antitumor effects of cancer vaccine by depleting regulatory T lymphocytes and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Mol Ther. 2010, 18: 1233-1243. 10.1038/mt.2010.34.