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Table 2 Speculative role of IL-1 cytokine family members in tissue repair and fibrosis during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

From: Emerging role of the interleukin (IL)-33/ST2 axis in gut mucosal wound healing and fibrosis

Common name IL-1 Family name Ligand-binding chain Disease association Speculative role in tissue repair and fibrosis
IL –1α IL –1F1 IL –1R type I CD[56, 57], UC[56, 57] Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]
IL–1β IL –1F2 IL –1R type I CD[56, 57], UC[56, 57] Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]
IL –1Ra IL –1F3 IL –1R type I UC[5860] Potential dual role[41]
IL–18 IL-1F4 IL-18Rα CD[61, 62] Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]
IL–36Ra IL –1F5 IL 1Rrp2 Unknown Unknown
IL–36α IL–1F6 IL–lRrp2 Unknown Unknown
IL –37 IL–1F7 IL–18Rα Unknown for human IBD, antagonist for DSS colitis[63] Protective (correlates with breakdown of intestinal barrier)[63]
IL-36β IL-1F8 IL-1Rrp2 Unknown Unknown
IL-36γ IL-1F9 IL-1Rrp2 Unknown Unknown
IL–38 IL–1F10 IL 1Rrp2 Unknown Unknown
IL- 33 IL –1F11 ST2 UC[2326] Protective[40, 41]