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Table 2 Speculative role of IL-1 cytokine family members in tissue repair and fibrosis during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

From: Emerging role of the interleukin (IL)-33/ST2 axis in gut mucosal wound healing and fibrosis

Common name

IL-1 Family name

Ligand-binding chain

Disease association

Speculative role in tissue repair and fibrosis

IL –1α

IL –1F1

IL –1R type I

CD[56, 57], UC[56, 57]

Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]

IL–1β

IL –1F2

IL –1R type I

CD[56, 57], UC[56, 57]

Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]

IL –1Ra

IL –1F3

IL –1R type I

UC[5860]

Potential dual role[41]

IL–18

IL-1F4

IL-18Rα

CD[61, 62]

Protective during early phase of inflammation[41]

IL–36Ra

IL –1F5

IL 1Rrp2

Unknown

Unknown

IL–36α

IL–1F6

IL–lRrp2

Unknown

Unknown

IL –37

IL–1F7

IL–18Rα

Unknown for human IBD, antagonist for DSS colitis[63]

Protective (correlates with breakdown of intestinal barrier)[63]

IL-36β

IL-1F8

IL-1Rrp2

Unknown

Unknown

IL-36γ

IL-1F9

IL-1Rrp2

Unknown

Unknown

IL–38

IL–1F10

IL 1Rrp2

Unknown

Unknown

IL- 33

IL –1F11

ST2

UC[2326]

Protective[40, 41]