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Table 1 TLR agonists stimulate different cytokines and effectors in various cell typesa

From: Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

Agonist TLR Concentration used Cell type Effect References
Pam3CSK4 (synthetic) TLR2 0.30 μg/ml PBMC Induction of IL-6 [38]
Lipomannan M. smegmatis (LM-MS) TLR2 10 μg/ml PBMC Cellular aggregation [48]
Heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) TLR2 3 × 107 cells/ml PBMC Induction of type I and type II IFN [49]
Lipotechoic acid from S. aureus (LTA) TLR2 10 μg/ml RAW264.7 Increased expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IP-10 [50]
Lipopolysaccharide from P. gingivalis (PG-LPS) TLR2 0.1 μg/ml U373 Secretion of IL-6 [51]
TLR2 0.1 μg/ml PBMC Induction of Type I and Type II IFN [49]
Poly (I:C) (synthetic) TLR3 10 μg/ml PBMC Production of IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α [52]
E. coli K12 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) TLR4 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg/ml PBMC Production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 [30, 31]
S. typhimurium flagellin TLR5 0.1 μg/ml PBMC Activation of NF-κB [29]
Imiquimod (IMIQ)
TLR7 3 μg/ml PBMC Expression of IFN, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 increased [53]
Gardiquimod (GIMIQ)
TLR7 1 μg/ml Plasmacytoid dendritic cells Expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, and RANTES increased [54]
TLR7 0.2 mM RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line
NK cells
Expression of IL-23 p19 increased
Activation of NK cells
[55, 56]
TLR8 1 μg/ml Peripheral blood Activation of TNF-α [57]
E. coli ssDNA/LyoVec TLR9 0.3-10 μg/ml RAW264.7 Production of nitrite [58]
TLR9 2 μM PBMC Increased production of IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-12 [59, 60]
TLR-9 1 μM Plasmacytoid dendritic
Decreased production of IFN-α [61]
Peptidoglycan from S. aureus (PGN) NLR 0.1-10 μg/ml HEK-293 Activation of NF-κB [62]
  1. aThis table summarizes the concentration of agonists used by other workers. TLR, Toll-like receptor; PBMC, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; HEK-293, human embryonic kidney-293 cells; PGN, peptidoglycan.