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Table 1 Various fabrication techniques for biomaterial scaffolds

From: Biomaterials for hollow organ tissue engineering

Fabrication method Application Advantages Disadvantages References
Tissue decellularisation Tissues with high ECM content, e.g. trachea, heart valves Native composition (ECM), retains mechanical properties and shape of organ Immunogenicity due to incomplete decellularisation, loss of ECM, requires donor organ [5, 10, 78]
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing Drug delivery, hard and soft tissue engineering, wound healing Fibres, particles and encapsulated particle production, biocompatible, biodegradable, manufacturing parameters adjustable to tailor product, control over pore size and distribution Inhomogeneous distribution of seeded cells [5, 10, 13, 79, 80]
Electrospinning Drug delivery, hard and soft tissue engineering, wound healing Production of fibres and encapsulated fibres, high porosity, surface area, biocompatible and biodegradable, manufacturing parameters adjustable to tailor product Inhomogeneous distribution of seeded cells [81, 82]
Hydrogels Scaffolds for cartilage, connective tissue and soft tissue bioengineering, cell delivery, drug delivery, wound healing Tuneable biodegradability, biomimicry, biocompatible, improves cellular interactions, mimics native ECM, injectable, self-assembly possible in response to pH and temperature, can be incorporated with other materials Limited mechanical properties, sensitive to the surrounding environment [5, 10, 15, 2831]
Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) Microparticles for tissue engineering, cell delivery, drug delivery High porosity, biocompatible, biodegradable, 3D scaffold, manufacturing parameters adjustable to tailor product, interconnected porous network, cell proliferation, injectable Limited open space through scaffold, inhomogeneous size particles, particle aggregation [10, 11, 80]
3D printing Fully developed constructs Complex structures mechanically similar to native tissue, fast processing Limited materials, post-processing [4, 14, 27]