TGFβ1-dependent Smad2/3 nuclear translocation is Ca
dependent. (A) The ratio of nuclear to whole cell TGFβ1-induced Smad 2/3 nuclear translocation is significantly attenuated when cells are incubated in media without Ca2+ (NFC n = 3, IPF n = 3, data pooled). (B) Fluorescent microscopy images illustrating the increased nuclear translocation of total Smad2/3 following TGFβ1 stimulation and its movement into the nucleus, which was significantly attenuated in the absence of Ca2+. Results are represented as mean ± SEM *P < 0.001 (repeated measures ANOVA corrected by Sidaks multiple comparison test).