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Table 2 Examples of studies focusing on differential diagnostics between IPF and NSIP or CTD-ILD

From: Tissue is an issue in the search for biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Study Patients/sample type Biomarker/method Main results
[25] 17 CTD-UIP FF count/area Lower FF counts/areas in CTD-UIP
18 IPF-UIP LA count/area Higher LA counts/areas in RA-ILD
  NSIP features Higher prevalence of NSIP in CTD-UIP
Lung transplant HC
[26] 12 NSIP CXCR3 CXCR3+ lymphocytes higher in NSIP
10 IPF CCR4 CCR4+ lymphocytes higher in IPF
[27] 9 IPF-UIP Epimorphin Epimorphin higher in NSIP than in IPF
8 NSIP  
  Western blotting
SLB Northern blotting
[28] 8 IPF p53, Mdm2, ubiquitin, Bax, p21 p53, phosphorylated p53, Mdm2 and Bax higher in IPF
5 NSIP  
SLB Western blotting
[29] 26 IPF-UIP MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2 More MMP-9 in IPF
11 NSIP   More MMP-2 in NSIP and BOOP
6 BOOP  
  1. CTD connective tissue disease, UIP usual interstitial pneumonia, IPF idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, ILD interstitial lung disease, RA rheumatoid arthritis, SLB surgical lung biopsy, FF fibroblast focus, LA lymphocyte aggregates, NSIP nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, HC histochemistry, CXCR and CCR chemokine receptors, IHC immunohistochemistry, p53 tumor protein p53, Mdm2 mouse double minute 2 homolog, Bax apoptosis regulator Bax, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, TUNEL a method detecting DNA fragmentation resulting from apoptosis, BOOP bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, MMP matrix metalloproteinase, TIMP specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase.