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Table 1 Completed clinical trials evaluating anti-fibrotic drugs in organs other than the gut

From: Medical therapy of stricturing Crohn’s disease: what the gut can learn from other organs - a systematic review

Parameter Author Study organ Number of patents Type of trial Study drug Mode of action Outcome measures
Growth factors Noble[95] Lung 779 RCT, phase III Pirfenidone Inhibition of TGF-β Increased FVC in IPF
Trachtman[98] Kidney 16 Open-label, phase I Fresolimumab Antibody targeting all isoforms of TGF-β Safety, pharmacokinetics
Ferguson[111] Skin 223 RCT, phase I/II Avotermin Antibody targeting TGF-β3 Acceleration and permanent improvement in dermal scaring
Dillingh[114] Lung 29 RCT, phase I rhSAP Substitution of SAP Reduction in SAP levels and circulating fibrocytes in healthy control and IPF patients
Oxidative stress Raghu[158] Lung 88 RCT, phase II Etanercept Blockade of TNF Physiological and functional decrease in disease progression in IPF
Corren[159] Lung 219 RCT, phase II Lebrikizumab Antibody targeting IL-13 Improved lung function in asthmatic patients
Horton[160] Lung 23 RCT, phase III Thalidomide Anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory Improvement of cough and respiratory quality of life in IPF
Intracellular enzymes and receptors Richeldi[162] Lung 432 RCT, phase II BIBF 1120 Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tendency towards reduced decline of lung function in IPF
Daniels[108] Lung 119 RCT, phase II/III Imatinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor No effect on survival and lung function
ECM and other Couluris[140] Lung 20 Uncontrolled, interventional study, phase II Losartan AT1 antagonist Stabilization of lung function in IPF
el-Agroudy[142] Kidney 162 RCT, phase II Losartan AT1 antagonist Decreased TGF-β1 plasma levels and proteinuria in renal interstitial fibrosis
Kuhn[182] Skin 10 Prospective, open-label, phase II Bosentan Endothelin receptor antagonist Reduced skin thickening in systemic sclerosis
Diez[141] Heart 34 Uncontrolled, phase II Losartan AT1 antagonist Decreased myocardial collagen content and left ventricular chamber stiffness in hypertensive patients
De[143] Liver 39 RCT, phase II Losartan AT1 antagonist Reduction of portal pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis
  King[183] Lung 616 RCT Bosentan Endothelin receptor antagonist Improvement of FVC and diffusing capacity in IPF
  1. AT1, angiotensin II receptor antagonist subtype 1; CXCL, CXC ligand; ECM, extracellular matrix; FVC, forced vital capacity; IL, interleukin; IPF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SAP, serum amyloid P component; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.