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Table 1 Biomarkers in IF/TA after kidney transplantation

From: Recent advances in renal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy after kidney transplantation

Biomarkers References
Blood  
Malondialdehyde [69]
Monocytes [70–73]
MMP/TIMP system [7479]
DNA microchimerism [8087]
Urine  
mRNA : KIM-1 [9194]
miRNA: miRNA-22, mir-140-3p, mir-125b, etc. [9597]
CCL2 [98100]
CTGF [101]
Vitamin D binding protein [102]
Retinol binding protein [103]
  1. MMP, Matrix metalloproteinases; TIMPs, Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; KIM-1, Kidney injury molecule-1; CTGF, Connective tissue growth factor.