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Table 1 Metabolic and hepatic features of rodent models fed with diets combining high fat and fructose

From: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a tale of fat and sugar?

Name of model, species, or strain Diet Weeks Metabolic featuresa NAFLD featuresa  
ALIOS diet (long-chain saturated trans fat) Standard chow (13.6% kcal from fat (soybean oil (15% saturated fatty acids, 23% monounsaturated fatty acids, 61% polyunsaturated fatty acids)) + gel-water; 16 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase, ↑ aspartate aminotransferase; [9]
C57BL/6 J mouse Alios diet: 45% kcal from fat (30% from partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (28% saturated fatty acids, 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids) + high-fructose corn syrup equivalent (55% fructose, 45% glucose by weight) (42 g/l as gel-water) ↑ liver triglycerides; macrosteatosis (zones 1 and 2), microsteatosis (zone 3);
↑ insulin, ↑ leptin;
   = adiponectin; lobular inflammation;
   = triglycerides, ↑ cholesterol (plasma) possible ballooning or Mallory-Denk body fibrosis: not observed
Modified ALIOS Chow diet; 16 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase; [10]
(medium chain saturated fatty acids) High-fat diet (58% kcal from fat); ↑ glucose/insulin (fasting); steatosis (micro, macro);
C57BL/6 J mouse High-fat diet + water with high-fructose corn syrup equivalent (55% fructose and 45% sucrose by weight (42 g/l)) ↑ HOMA-IR; lobular inflammation, ↑ apoptosis;
   ↑ liver triglycerides ballooning: not assessed or not reported;
    ↑ fibrosis
Fast-food mouse Standard chow (13% kcal from fat (1% saturated fatty acids) + high-fructose corn syrup in water (42 g/l)); 25 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ aspartate [8]
C57BL/6 J mouse High-fat diet (60% kcal from fat (1% saturated fatty acids) + high-fructose corn syrup in water (42 g/l)); ↑ glucose, insulin (fasting); aminotransferase;
  Fast-food diet (40% kcal from fat (12% saturated fatty acids) +2% cholesterol + high-fructose corn syrup in water (42 g/l)) ↑ HOMA-IR; steatosis: panacinar;
   ↓ adiponectin; (++ macro, + micro);
   ↑ cholesterol (plasma) intra-acinar inflammation;
    ballooning;
fibrosis: peri-sinusoidal, -cellular
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Control diet (4.8% fat); 8 ↑ body weight, = liver weight; Liver function tests: not assessed or not reported; [11]
C57BL/6 J mouse 60% fat diet + 30% fructose in water ↑ glucose, ↑insulin (fasting); centrilobular fat vacuolation;
   ↑ HOMA-IR, ↑ GTT-AUC; (↑ Oil Red O);
   ↑ leptin; fibrosis: not assessed or not reported
   ↑ triglycerides (plasma), ↑ cholesterol (plasma)  
High-fat diet + sucrose Control group (control); 12 ↑ body weight; Liver function tests: not assessed or not reported; [12]
Wistar rats High fat, high sucrose =glucose, = insulin; ↑ macrosteatosis
   ↑ cholesterol, = triglycerides (plasma);  
   ↑ leptin  
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Control diet; 8 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; Liver function tests: not assessed or not reported; [13]
C57BL6/J mouse High-fat diet (72% fat (corn oil/lard); 28% protein, <1% carbohydrates) + 21% fructose in water = liver triglycerides, ↑ GTT-AUC; ↑ macrosteatosis;
   =glucose, ↑ insulin (fasting) fibrosis: not assessed or not reported
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Standard chow (5% kcal from fat, 18% proteins, 77% carbohydrates) 12 ↑ body weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase; [14]
Sprague–Dawley rat Standard chow + fructose in water (30% w/v); glucose =, ↑ insulin; ballooning + mild steatosis;
  High-fat diet (58% kcal from fat, 18% protein, 24% carbohydrates) ↑ triglycerides, ↑ cholesterol (plasma) no inflammation;
  High-fat diet + fructose in water (30% w/v)   rare fibrosis
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Standard chow (24% protein, 11% fat, 65% carbohydrates (% by weight)); 15 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase, ↑ aspartate aminotransferase; [15]
Wistar rats High-fat diet [26% fat, 17% protein, 4% cholesterol, 53% carbohydrates) + 10% (w/v) fructose in water ↑ liver triglycerides, ↑ HOMA-IR; ↑ Oil Red O;
   ↑ insulin, = glucose (fasting); fibrosis: not assessed or not reported
   ↑ leptin, ↓ adiponectin  
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Normal chow (4% fat); 48 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; Liver function tests, fibrosis: not assessed or not reported; [16]
Sprague–Dawley rats High-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) + 10% fructose in water = glucose (fasting), ↑ GTT-AUC; macroscopic signs of steatosis
   ↑ triglycerides, = cholesterol (plasma)  
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Low-fat diet: 10% kcal from fat; 10 ↑ Body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alkaline phosphatase, = alanine aminotransferase; [17]
Sprague–Dawley rats Western diet: high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat (soybean oil, lard)) + high-fructose corn syrup-55 (55% fructose, 45% glucose diluted with water to 12.5%) ↑ GTT-AUC/↑ leptin; ↑ liver fat score, ↑ NAFLD activity score;
   = triglycerides (plasma); = lobular inflammation, = ballooning;
   ↓ cholesterol (plasma) fibrosis: no
High-fat diet + fructose (water) Cornstarch diet; 16 ↑ body weight, = liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase /↑ aspartate aminotransferase; [18]
Wistar rats High-fat, fructose diet (52% carbohydrate, 24% fat, 25% fructose in drinking water) ↑ basal glucose; ↑ fat vacuoles;
   ↑ plasma triglycerides (plasma) ↑ portal inflammation;
    fibrosis: portal
High-fat diet + fructose (chow) Standard chow; 16 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase/ aspartate aminotransferase; [19]
C57BL/6 J mice High-fat, high-fructose diet (in solid diet) ↑ HOMA-IR; micro/macro-steatosis (pericentral);
  ↑ insulin, glucose (fasting); fibrosis: not assessed or not reported
  ↑ liver triglycerides  
High-fat diet + fructose (chow) Control group (cornstarch diet); 5 = body weight; = alanine aminotransferase; [20]
High fructose (70% by weight); = plasma triglycerides; some macrosteatosis;
Wistar rats High sucrose (70%); = glucose; inflammation: =lobular, = portal;
High fat (15%); = liver triglycerides fibrosis: no change
High fat (15%), high fructose (50%)   
High-fat diet + fructose (chow) Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (cornstarch) diet; 32 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase; [21]
Wistar rats High-carbohydrate (fructose/sucrose), high-fat diet ↑ visceral adiposity; = liver triglycerides, lipid deposition;
  ↑ % body fat inflammation;
   fibrosis: not assessed or not reported
High-fat diet + fructose (chow + water) Control: cornstarch diet; 16 ↑ body weight, ↑ liver weight; ↑ alanine aminotransferase, ↑ aspartate aminotransferase, ↑ alkaline phosphatase; [22]
Wistar rats High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%)) + 25% fructose in water ↑ glucose, = insulin (fasting); ↑ macrosteatosis;
   ↑ GTT-AUC; ↑ inflammation;
   ↑ cholesterol, ↑ triglycerides (plasma) mild portal fibrosis
  1. aAll indicated changes refer to the experimental group in bold compared with either a control diet or other listed groups.