Summary of some of the major mechanisms of HSP27 on disease states. The primary mechanisms by which HSP27 acts are protein folding, effects on the actin cytoskeleton, reduction of oxidative stress and suppression of various modes of apoptosis or other kinds of cell death. The up-regulation that is a biomarker of some disease states is likely the cell’s attempt at rescue by using HSP27 to prevent cell death or to reduce the local oxidative stress. HSP27 presents in different oligomeric states, regulated by phosphorylation. While the phosphorylation state is important for some interactions, as discussed in the text, this has not been addressed in this figure.