induces the expression of the α-SMA and prolyl-4-hydroxylase. Human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), incubated with or without TGF-β1 (10 ng/mL) for 24 h, were immunostained using antibodies against α-SMA (A) and prolyl-4-hydroxylase (C). Scale bars represent 50 μm. The α-SMA (B) and prolyl-4-hydroxylase (D) expression at 6, 24, and 48 h was examined by western blot and bands were quantified with densitometry. Presented values are the intensity of each band relative to loading control: GAPDH. Each value represent mean and SEM from four individual experiments. *P < 0.05.