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Table 2 Published interventional clinical trials using endothelial progenitor cells.

From: Endothelial progenitor cells and integrins: adhesive needs

Disease Patient numbers Intervention Description Results Reference
Chronic ischemic heart disease 121 Transcoronary transplantation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells Intracoronary infusion in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease Reduced serum levels of heart failure markers;
reduced mortality
[101]
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension 33 Transplantation of autologous EPCs (differentiated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells) Test safety, feasibility, and initial clinical outcome of intravenous infusion of autologous EPCs in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension Feasible and safe infusion of autologous EPCs is beneficial to exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension [102]
Chronic ischemic heart disease 75 Intracoronary infusion of peripheral blood-EPCs and bone marrow-derived progenitor cells Effect of intracoronary EPC infusion on the left ventricular contractile function Feasible and safe transplantation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is associated with moderate but significant improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction after three months [103]
Acute myocardial infarction 26 Intracoronary injection of EPCs (differentiated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells) Effect of intracoronary EPC infusion on coronary vasomotion and left ventricular function in patients after recanalization of chronic coronary total occlusion Increased left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary flow reserve;
reduction in infarct size
[104]
Acute myocardial infarction 11 Transcoronary transplantation of bone marrow-derived EPCs and mesenchymal stem cells Effect of transcoronary transplantation of EPCs and mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial contractility and tissue regeneration Reduction in infarct size [105]
Acute myocardial infarction 59 Intracoronary infusion of peripheral blood EPCs and bone marrow-derived progenitor cells Effect of intracoronary EPC infusion on left ventricular function, infarct size and reactive hypertrophy Increased left ventricular ejection fraction, no reactive hypertrophy;
Reduction in infarct size
[106]
Critical limb ischemia 28 Intramuscular injections of peripheral blood granulocyte colony stimulating factor mobilized CD34+ CD133+ EPCs Effect of intramuscular infusion on and limb salvage rate for amputation at 12 months Implantation of EPCs in critical limb ischemia is a safe alternative, improves tissue perfusion, and obtains high amputation-free rates [107]
Acute myocardial infarction 366 EPC capture stent Safety and efficacy of EPC capture stents in the acute myocardial infarction settings EPC stent is safe;
At two-year follow-up, the EPC group showed favorable target vessel revascularizations rate and stent thrombosis remained a low-event occurrence
[108]
ST elevation acute myocardial infarction 100 EPC capture stent Safety and efficacy of EPC capture stents in the ST elevation acute myocardial infarction settings The study does not support the use of EPC capture stents with short duration dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction [109]
Refractory angina 167 Intramyocardial injections of autologous CD34+ cells Effect of intramyocardial injections of autologous CD34+ cells on refractory angina patient Intramyocardial injections of autologous CD34+ cells improves angina frequency and exercise tolerance [110]
  1. EPC: endothelial progenitor cell.