TLR4 and TLR5 agonists do not affect fibrocyte differentiation. Human PBMCs were cultured in the presence or absence of 0.89 μg/ml TLR4 agonist LPS or 0.89 μg/ml TLR5 agonist flagellin. After 5 days, the cells were air-dried, fixed and stained, and the number of fibrocytes was counted. The results are means ± SEM of fibrocytes per 2.5 × 105 PBMCs (n = 6 separate experiments). Although LPS and flagellin appear to decrease the number of fibrocytes compared to no addition, the decrease is not significant by either ANOVA or t-test.