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Table 1 Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and ligands

From: Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in liver injury and hepatic fibrogenesis

TLR Ligands Cellular location
TLR1 Triacylated bacterial lipopeptides Cell membrane
TLR2 Triacylated bacterial lipopeptides Cell membrane
TLR3 Double-stranded RNA produced by most viruses during replication Endosomal compartment
TLR4 Lipopolysaccharide, low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid, heparin sulfate, saturated fatty acid, fibrinogen, fibronectin, heat shock proteins 60 and 70, high mobility group box-1, degraded matrix Cell membrane
TLR5 Bacterial flagellin Cell membrane
TLR6 TLR1 and 6 combine with TLR2 to distinguish the subtle differences between triacyl and diacyl lipopeptides Cell membrane
TLR7 ssRNA viruses, influenza virus Endosomal compartment
TLR8 ssRNA Endosomal compartment
TLR9 Unmethylated CpG DNA found in bacteria, DNA virus Endosomal compartment
TLR10 unknown Cell membrane
  1. 1ssRNA = single-stranded RNA.