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Table 1 Methods for tumor interstitial fluid isolation

From: Interstitial fluid: the overlooked component of the tumor microenvironment?

Method How performed What was sampled Advantages Disadvantages Remarks References
Glass capillaries Insertion by blunt dissection in vivo Fluid from tumor periphery or sectioned surface In vivo native fluid Bleeding and inflammation, cellular disruption High level of intracellular enzymes in isolated fluid [40]
Implantable chambers Chronically implanted Fluid draining from central part of tumor In vivo native fluid, continuous and repeated sampling Inflammation in early phases, scar formation Requires chronic restraining of animal [41]
Implanted wicks Implanted acutely or chronically Fluid absorbed into wicks during implantation In vivo, native fluid Bleeding and inflammation, cellular disruption Chronic implantation more representative than acute [43]
Microdialysis Insertion of semipermeable membrane Substances diffusing across membrane In vivo continuous and repeated sampling Inflammation, incomplete recovery, dilute fluid Recovery especially low for macromolecules Reviewed in [45]
Capillary ultrafiltration Negative pressure applied to semipermeable membrane Substances transported by bulk flow across membrane In vivo continuous and repeated sampling Inflammation, incomplete recovery Recovery especially low for macromolecules [60]
Tissue centrifugation Exposure of excised tissue to increased G-force Fluid from tumor periphery or bone marrow Native fluid Ex vivo single samples Composition validated by extracellular tracers [61, 77]
Tissue elution Elution of minced tissue Substances dissolved in elution buffer Technically easy Ex vivo single samples, dilute fluid Contamination by intracellular proteins likely [67]