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Table 1 Genetic polymorphisms with relevance to fibrosis risk.

From: Role of host genetics in fibrosis

Gene Known variation Effect Reference
TGF beta Leu10Pro LeuLeu showed a slow progression of fibrosis
Carriage of Pro associated with faster fibrotic progression
[8488]
  Arg25Pro Carriage of Pro associated with faster fibrotic progression  
Angiotensin G-6A Carriage of AA genotype associated with increased risk of fibrosis [87]
TNF-alpha G-308A A allele associated with hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cancer, fibrosing alveolitis [91, 93, 136, 137]
IL-10 C-592A/-819/G-1082A Carriage of ATA associated with ALD and HCV induced fibrosis [99, 100, 138]
IL-1 IL-1RNC +2018T T allele associated with increased risk of fibrosing alveolitis [91]
IFN-gamma T+874A T allele associated with higher rate of liver cirrhosis following Hep C infection [103, 104]
CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) insertion/deletion (Δ32) Carriage of Δ32 associated with severe fibrosis [107]
MCP-2 Q46K Carriage of the K variant is associated with more severe fibrosis [107]
MCP-1 G-2518A Carriage of G allele associated with increased risk of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis [109]
Haemochromatosis gene (HFE) G+845A
C+187G
Heterozygous genotypes associated with increased inflammation and fibrosis [110, 111]
Myeloperoxidase
(MPO)
G-463A Minor allele associated with increased risk of advanced fibrosis in CHC patients [112]
low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) G+1170A Carriage of G associated with increased risk of fibrosis [113]
Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) E4 allele Carriage of E4 allele associated with protection against HCV induced liver damage [114]
DDX5 DEAD box polypeptide 5 and POLG2 SNPs   Minor allele associated with increased risk of advanced fibrosis in CHC patients [139]
CD14 C-159T T allele associated with higher levels of acute phase proteins and advanced ALD [140]
TLR4 D299G
T399I
Both variant allele confer protection against fibrosis [141, 142]
  1. CHC, chronic hepatitis cancer; ALC, alcoholic liver cirrhosis; ALD, alcoholic liver disease; HCV, hepatitis C virus