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Table 2 Potential mechanisms for viral exacerbation of IPF

From: Viruses as co-factors for the initiation or exacerbation of lung fibrosis

Th2 environment in fibrotic lungs may limit viral clearance
Epithelial cells in fibrotic lungs may be unable to effectively replace epithelial cells damaged by lytic infection
Increased chemokines may recruit and activate fibrocytes
Pro-inflammatory mediators secreted in response to infection may have pro-fibrotic effects
Steroid and immunosuppressive therapy may predispose the host for increased viral infection or reactivation
Microvascular injury